By Thomas M. Schmitt
A textual content and reference giving a realistic account of equipment the selection and comprehension of commercially very important person surfactants, in addition to these in compounds. Describes the make-up and structural drawings for an array of surfactants, reports options for picking out them within the setting, and extra.
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Extra info for Analysis of Surfactants
Procedure (7) Weigh a sample of 1-5 g into a suitable flask and dissolve in about 50 mL water. Adjust to the methyl orange end point with HC1 or KOH solution, then add 50 mL 1 M HC1 solution. 5 hr to complete hydrolysis. Cool to about 50°C and rinse the condenser into the flask with water and petroleum ether. This step is vital because the alcohols are steam-distilled from the flask and trapped in the condenser (62). Transfer the flask contents to a separatory funnel and extract several times with 40-or 50-mL aliquots of petroleum ether.
I. Apparent pH Anionic surfactants are normally adjusted to neutral pH after sulfonation. A low product pH shows that hydrolysis may have occurred, while high pH may indicate improper neutralization. pH is usually measured on an aqueous solution of sample concentration 1% or less (34,35). J. Acidity or Alkalinity Product specifications often include titration to neutrality. This test is simple to perform and gives an indication of consistency and impurity level. There are, however, some pitfalls which become apparent as instrumentation is applied.
The final normal phase HPLC analysis is performed with a silica column and refractive index detection. 2 ppm (90). Ion exchange is used to remove ionic material. 5 cm, in series; one of Bio-Rad AG 50W-X8, H+ form, two of a strongly basic anion exchange resin. Elution of 8 g sample is performed with 85:10:5 isopropanol/water/meth- TM Copyright n 2001 by Marcel Dekker, Inc. All Rights Reserved. ) TLC (silica gel 60, 250 mm on Al plates: development with 50:50:2 pentane/ethyl ether/methanol; 25 mg residue per plate; sulfuric acid charring of standard, placed on a removable strip on the plate edge, to identify sultone zone) is used to further concentrate the sultones, which are finally removed with ethyl ether and determined by HPLC with a mobile phase of 96:4 isooctane/ethanol.