By S. m. Drobenkov
This ebook summarizes the result of a long term research of amphibian distribution, ecology and morphology within the Republic of Belarus. For all amphibian species comparable to Triturus vulgaris, T. cristatus, Bombina bombina, Pelobates fuscus, Bufo bufo, B. viridis, B. calamita, Hyla arborea, Rana temporaria, R. arvalis, R. ridibunda, R. lessonae and Rana esculenta, geographical and habitat distribution, assemblage constitution, feeding, job, copy and improvement are defined. special research of morphological version and the differentiation of populations through panorama areas are given. local difficulties of anthropogenic strain and method of species conservation are mentioned. The e-book can also serve a consultant to the amphibians of Belarus and will good be utilized by either experts and amateurs.
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Extra resources for Amphibians of Belarus
Table 5. Size and measurements of Bufo bufo from the territory of Belarus (n=531). 025 24 SERGEI M. DROBENKOV ET AL. Fig. 7. Distribution of Bufo bufo in Belarus. Fig. 8. Ventral surface of Bufo bufo. The breeding of the Common Toad in the central part of the Republic occurs in the middle of April at water temperatures 6–14°C, usually a little later than the Common Frog and simultaneously with the Moor Frog. Wetlands with light f low or ditchwater, such as rivers, sloughs, drainage channels, ponds and water storage basins, serve as breeding habitats (Fig.
After hibernation it appears in water bodies at the end of April. The first mating calls of males in the central part of Belarus are noted on 21 April at an air temperature of 20oC and a water temperature of 14oC. The peak breeding usually occurs in the second half of May, but some individuals deposit eggs to the end of June and the first part of July. The average density of vocalizing males is 2–3 specimens/10 m2. The number of breeding aggregations is rarely more than 15–20 toads per wetland.
In some places in spring during spawning there are large numbers of Common Toads. Territorial aggregations in a small area (2–4 km2) may include 4–8 thousand individuals. Large associations are seen more often along river beds, sloughs, drainage channels, and the shores of water storage basins. ” Amplexus, as well as for the two other species of toads, is axillary. Common Toads have one of the highest fecundities among all local species. 8). 7 mm. 26 SERGEI M. DROBENKOV ET AL. Embryonic development depends on water temperature and may take 4–15 days.