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By Hans Ruthenberg

In early 1961 the Ho-Institut fur Wirtschaftsforschung (Ho-Institute for monetary learn) verified an "African stories Centre" with the help of the Fritz-Thyssen-Foundation to behavior examine into the commercial and political difficulties of constructing international locations, with spe cial connection with the African international locations. through investigations into thestructure and customers of improvement within the constructing nations, the experiences Centre will target at contributing in the direction of the construction of a actual foundation, at the foundation of which the Federal Republic's improve ment coverage will be performed successfully. during this "age of improvement" the social and financial sciences are faced with manifold initiatives. In fixing those, interdisciplinary co operation will turn out useful or even crucial, if fallacious and slim decisions are to be refrained from. Co-operation among scientists and institutes engaged in several branches of analysis will make attainable a greater und er status of the complicated practical courting which confirm financial occasions and their mutations outdoor Western commercial society than should be quite often accomplished via an remoted procedure. clever total financial making plans, for instance, calls for technological research simply up to an actual wisdom of social constitution or actual context. At this element the economist needs to co-operate heavily with the engineer if he needs to prevent wasting his means commonly styles of progress. For, "des lors que nous parions (du developpement) en quantites globales, nous ne parions de rien" (LoUIs ]OSEPH LEBRET).

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The income from cotton has raised demand among farmers with little livestock. For Usmao, COLLINSON estimated that, in spite of the poor quality of the livestock, cattle show an extraordinary high return per head. 9 - excluding the costs of herding - which corresponds to 25 per cent rates of interest. However, 1962 was a particularly good year for grazing. COLLINSON estimated the average gross yield at about 2000 shs, with a wide margin between more and less successful farms. About one-half of the gross production is sold.

In the following year the cyde of few cattle, abundant fodder and higher rates of increase begins anew. In some parts of Tanganyika, in Masailand for example, this cyde repeats itself at intervals of about 10 years. During the last dry period - 1961 - half of the cattle in southern Masailand and the western Arusha Chiefdom are said to have died. The harm done by irrational animal husbandry is not confined to losses during the dry season. Cotton, pyrethrum and coffee are relatively good money earners.

Of all families receive non-agricultural income. 7 Without rent for house. BECK calculates rent per family and year as 420 shs. Sourees: a) BEcK, R. : An economic study of coffee-banana-farms in the Central Machame area. 1961. Mimeo. 1963. b) Agr. Dep. District Book, Moshi. 5 6 28 some of the big wheat farmers are in the habit of leasing land from smaller farmers for one year against the payment of one bag per acre, or every 9th bag. Consequendy the rich farmer is the tenant and the poor one the landlord.

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