Oceans Seas

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By P Boomgaard

Water, in its many guises, has consistently performed a robust function in shaping Southeast Asian histories, cultures, societies, and economies. those essays characterize a extensive variety of ways to the research of Southeast Asia with water because the vital topic. because it used to be uncovered to the ocean, the sector was once extra available to open air political, monetary and cultural affects than many landlocked parts. quick access via sea routes additionally encouraged alternate. besides the fact that, an analogous easy accessibility made Southeast Asia at risk of political keep an eye on by way of robust outsiders. the ocean is, additionally, a resource of nutrition, but additionally of many dangers. even as, Southeast Asian societies and cultures are faced with and permeated via "water from heaven" within the type of rain, flash floods, irrigation water, water in rivers, brooks, and swaps, water-driven strength crops, and pumped or piped water, as well as water as a service of sewage and pollutants. eventually, the amount offers with the function of water in type platforms, ideals, myths, ailment, and therapeutic.

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Extra resources for A world of water: rain, rivers and seas in Southeast Asian histories

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An increasingly wealthy southern China was also turning seaward as the land caravan trade was disrupted. As will be described below, under the 14 Scott 1995, 1998; Aung-Thwin 1998; Sutherland 2001, 2005. Cribb 2000; Bellwood 1999; Manguin 1991; Wolters 1999:179-80; Hall 1999; F. Dunn and L. Dunn 1984. 16 Miksic 1995; Leong 1990; L. Andaya 2000:23. 17 L. Andaya 1993:1-2; see also on cloves in Ptak 1999; L. Andaya 2000; Pearson 1996 and 2003. 15 34 Heather Sutherland T’ang (618-907) and Song (960-1126) dynasties China’s markets drew traders from the west, including the newly emerging Muslim world.

Andaya 1999b; Hall 1999; Das Gupta and Pearson 1987:’Introduction’:24. 25 Pearson 2003; Ng 1983; Wang 1998; Wang 1981; Souza 1987; Risso 1995:45; Reid 1996; Ptak 1998; Ray 1999; Hall 1999:219. Geography as destiny? 39 tensions, and by the first half of the seventeenth century the Portuguese in Asia were increasingly marginalized. 26 During the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries local Southeast Asian societies had still built and sailed large ocean-going vessels (Pearson 2003:6375). Jong were the main carriers of the eastern Indian Ocean, and benefited from the booming pepper trade.

This cold wind was felt most obviously by the Indian skippers. As Ashin Das Gupta (1987:140) observed, ‘Asian ship-owners had always found it difficult to compromise with the Europeans because of the competition for the carrying trade, while the shore-based merchant had found accommodation both possible and often desirable’. The great Gujerati fleet ‘dwindled into insignificance’ and Muslim ship owning seemed to collapse’ (Das Gupta 1987:134). But Indian merchants were also affected, and by the second half of the eighteenth century banking in India was also being taken over by the English.

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