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By David Thurmond

Rome used to be in a position to help an enormous city inhabitants by way of supplying it with the rudiments of human meals within the kind of processed meals. This quantity includes a cautious research of these nutrition approaches. The paintings is equipped at the foundation of the presumed value of these meals, starting with the so-called Mediterranean Triad of cereals (particularly wheaten bread), olive oil and wine, then facing plant items reminiscent of legumes, greens and end result, then animal items, and finishing with the condiments (salts, sugars, acids, spices) that have been themselves the brokers for the maintenance of alternative meals. The paintings combines research of literary and archaeological facts from antiquity with that of conventional comparative practices and smooth nutrition technological know-how.

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Extra info for A Handbook of Food Processing in Classical Rome: For Her Bounty No Winter (Technology and Change in History) (Technology and Change in History)

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Wikander (1979): 15–24; M. Bell, “An Imperial Flour Mill on the Janiculan,” in Le ravitaillement en blé de Rome et des centres urbaines des débuts de la République jusqu’au Haut Empire (Naples: Centre Jean Bérard, 1994): 73–89. 90 Thorkild Schiøler and Örjan Wikander, “A Roman Water-Mill in the Baths of Caracalla,” Opuscula Romana 14, 4 (1983): 47–64. 89 cereals 49 both late. Thus the main problem with water as motive force was not supply but control to achieve efficiency. For example, if a water wheel is immersed directly in a river or stream, water level will inevitably rise too high or fall too low, at least seasonally.

On opposite sides of the narrow part of the catillus on the exterior are two square projections or bosses with a smaller square socket or mortise in their centers to receive a square timber. At right angles to these sockets on the sides of the bosses are small holes for doweling the timber securely in place. From artistic representations we see that these timbers are part of a yoke-like frame which bisects the catillus across its top and is fitted around its sides such that it somewhat resembles a lyre.

Aspects of Roman City Life (Edmonton: University of Alberta Press, 1981): 227–35. , 1971) 85–86. 43 Rickman (1971): 293–7. 32 chapter one environment for the huge quantities of grain necessary to feed Rome’s population. Hermansen44 estimates a grand total of 33,300 square meters of storage potential at Ostia, a figure that would represent 32,190 tons of grain. The grain import from Egypt and Africa is recorded as 60 million modii per year45 which equals 390,000 tons, a figure Hermansen finds suspect.

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