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By Eugene H Kaplan

Portrays the ecology and formation of coral reefs and describes a few of the animals that inhabit the reefs of southern Florida and the Caribbean

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Additional resources for A field guide to coral reefs of the Caribbean and Florida : a guide to the common invertebrates and fishes of Bermuda, the Bahamas, southern Florida, the West Indies, and the Caribbean coast of Central and South America

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The bacteria use the energy obtained from the oxidation of reduced sulphur Â�compounds and methane from hydrothermal fluid for the fixation of the CO2 required for primary production (Yamanaka et al. 2003). Recently, Petersen et al. (2011) reported that bacteria also use hydrogen, a natural example of a living hydrogen‐powered ‘fuel cell’. Such a finding may have wider implications than purely academic ones, as hydrogen‐powered fuel cells are regarded today as one of the most promising clean‐energy alternatives (ScienceDaily 2011).

The velum plays an important role in controlling the flow of water into and out of the mantle cavity. It also plays a very important role in the so‐called escape response and swimming movement of scallops described earlier. Many algae are seen as symbionts of marine bivalves. For example, in the giant tropical clam Tridacna gigas, the edges of the mantle are packed with symbiotic zooxanthellae. When clams gape the mantle is extruded and the zooxanthellae are exposed to sunlight, thus allowing photosynthesis to take place.

The shell adductors relax, the valves open and pedal dilation and anchorage is lost. There is now a static period during which the foot repeatedly probes the surrounding �substrate. As the animal penetrates further into the substrate the digging period shortens. This is probably not due to fatigue as animals will repeatedly burrow when they are removed from the substrate after completing a digging period (Trueman 1968). To ascend towards the �surface they back out, pushing against the anchored end of the foot, although some actually turn around and burrow upwards.

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